Virtually any type of vegetable or herb should fair well in a container as long as it has enough room. Small containers dry out more quickly and need daily watering. Here are the minimum soil depths for healthy growth.
4-5 inches: chives, lettuce, radishes, other salad greens, basil, coriander
6-7 inches: bush beans, garlic, kohlrabi, onions, Asian greens, peas, mint, thyme